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33. Origins of Classical School. Garofalo was interested in developing a “classical” definition of crime. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Beccaria and U.S. Criminal Justice. Law becomes subjective and in becoming subjective it generates rights. Modern criminology is the product of which two main schools of thought? In 1764, Beccaria published what was to become the manifesto for the reform of judicial and penal systems throughout Europe—Dei Which of the following is one of the circumstances to be considered in measuring a pleasure or pain by itself? Ans: 77. Serial killer was a term that was once unknown, however found definition in the 20th century as… 7 Beccaria’s essay On Crimes and Punishments8 focused on the causes of crime, deemed by some as a choice of free will9, and addressed the need for an improvement in … The leading theorist of the classical school of criminology… Contact me if you need custom WordPress plugins or website design. Ans: Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. The belief that human beings have free will is essential to classical criminology. Engaging in a debate about the death penalty, one person makes the argument that while the penalty may not deter offenders, it is still a valuable punishment in the name of social defense. Although originally skeptical, he later beca… The philosopher the most closely associated with the principle of utility was: 5. They are seen as the most important enlightenment thinkers in the area of ‘classical’ thinking and are considered the founding fathers of the classical school of criminology. 43. Two Points of Departure for the Beginning of Criminology A. b. Prior to the eighteenth century, explanations of crime and other human behavior tended to center on: 8. 19. The argument that crime can be reduced by increasing individuals sense of ownership and generating a sense of belonging in an area through its physical design is central to the idea of _____. True or False? _____ are known for the emphasis that they place on the scientific method. Described as the father of modern criminology, Cesare Lombroso's theory of the 'born criminal' dominated thinking about criminal behaviour in the late 19th and early 20th century February 14, … He called this pleasure/pain principle the hedonistic calculus. When the value of any pleasure or pain is considered for the purpose of estimating the tendency of any act by which it is produced, there are two circumstances that must be taken into account. Beccaria believed that equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally according to relevant differences. General deterrence theory is concerned with how individuals respond to the perceived as opposed to objective cost properties of their criminal decisions. 50. 40. 51. 9. Our dedication to quality and customer satisfaction makes us one of the best academic writing agencies in the world. 42. Describe the contributions of Andre M. Guerry and Adolphe Quetelet to the field of criminology, and explain their significance. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be: a. Cesare Lombroso. 58. Which of the following theoretical perspectives is based on the premise that human behavior is primarily hedonistic in nature? Create your account. It was based on principles of utilitarian philosophy. _____ is a concept in rational choice theory referring to how people decide to offend. What punishment was associated with each peculiarity? 52. 67. b. Jeremy Bentham. True or False? 23. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Lombroso believed that criminals were born with these traits and did not commit crimes according to fre… Jeremy Bentham maintained that estimations of the values of pleasures and pains were to be considered with reference to which of the following circumstances? The Classical School Cesare Beccaria and Reform The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be the Italian nobleman and pro-fessor of law, Cesare Bonesana, Marchese di Beccaria. Cesare Beccaria, in full Cesare, Marchese (marquess) Di Beccaria Bonesana, (born March 15, 1738, Milan—died November 28, 1794, Milan), Italian criminologist and economist whose Dei delitti e delle pene (Eng. Philosophers like Cesare Beccaria, John Locke, and Jeremy Bentham expanded upon social contract theory to explain why people commit crime and how societies could effectively combat crime. Known as father of classical school and father of deterrence theory. Classical Criminology first emerged in the 18th century when individuals started to rebel against the harsh punishments given across Europe and America. _____ deterrence refers to the effect of punishment of the future behavior of the person who experiences the punishment. How would each of the following theoretical perspectives explain this crime? Rather than exploring why individuals commit crime, _____ criminologists are interested in where and when criminal behavior is most prevalent. The 8th Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment; this is most closely aligned with the ideas of which of the following? What are the four characteristics that place offenders at risk for further criminal behavior? 21. How did he feel about capital punishment? Lombroso published The Man of Genius in 1889, a book which argued that artistic genius was a form of hereditary insanity. Cesare Beccaria – “Father of Classical Criminology”: Argued for just and humane punishments. Which two theorists are most often associated with the classical school? As years progress, crime continues to escalate throughout society. 37. The entire range of social phenomena can be understood more or less accurately using models of economic transactions and the assumption that people make rational choices between opportunities to maximize their own utility. Identify the four circumstances to be considered in estimating a pleasure or pain considered by itself. He was a well-known scholar in his time, and many people both from Italy and abroad visited him to discuss ideas and research with him. Italian physician. Means that all events have causes that preceded them. 41. Discuss the classical explanation of human behavior in regards to hedonism, rationality, and free will. According to Raffael Garofalo, societies can only be protected from _____ criminals by swiftly executing them, regardless of the crime for which they were being punished. With the principles of Cesare Beccaria and the philosophies of Jeremy Bentham, the Classical School of Criminology was erected and put into effect. 22. Lombroso was certainly not the only one wh… Increased punishments for using guns in crimes, c. Reducing police officer’s ability to frisk based on reasonable suspicion, d. Three-strikes-and-you’re-out for lower level offenses. Briefly describe cartographic criminology. Cesare Lombroso, Raffael Garofalo, and Enrico Ferri founded what became known as the _____ school of criminology. Thanks for installing the Bottom of every post plugin by Corey Salzano. True or False? True or False? Balance, if on the side of pleasure, will give the general evil tendency of the act. True or False? Ans: 72. Based on what you have learned in this class, is the U.S. soft or hard on crime? Scholars who employ maps and other geographic information in their research are known as: a. Cesare Lombroso, famous in the nineteenth century because he claimed to have discovered the cause of crime, became known as the father of criminology. Describe Cesare Lombroso’s theory of atavism. Classical criminology however argues against the concept of a criminal being defined by a certain type. answer! 45. Criminologist Raffael Garofalo categorized alcoholics and the insane as _____ criminals. Legal sanctions have a greater deterrent effect on instrumental crimes than on expressive crimes. Services, Cesare Lombroso: Biography, Theory & Criminology, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Bentham stated that every person has free will and is able to make a rational choice based on the situation they are in at the time and what they feel would be the appropriate action to take. Hedonism is a doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life. For any questions, feedback, or comments, we have an ethical customer support team that is always waiting on the line for your inquiries. Criminology deals with how the brain works and the effect of this on our actions. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. 44. As a result of his research Lombroso became known as the father of modern criminology. c. The cartographic approach. c. Adolphe Quetelet. Send us an E-mail: support@homeworkcrew.com. Which of the following is one of the policy recommendations presented by Becker? 18. 47. The classical school of thought was premised on the idea that people have free will in making decisions, and that punishmentcan be a deterrent for crime, so long as th… 48. 1. J.A. _____ specifically refers to the concept that people have the capacity to make choices, and the moral responsibility to make moral choices regardless of any constraints that might exist. 24 Oct 2008 Lecture Outline. d. Cesare Beccaria. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be. Compare and contrast the classical and positivist schools of criminology. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be a. Cesare Lombroso b. Jeremy Bentham c. Adolphe Quetelet d. Cesare Beccaria Specific deterrence refers to the preventive effect of the threat of punishment on the general population. How are these explanations of crime similar? He protested against the current legal system and pushed for those in power to see that individuals are rational beings and deserve rational repercussions. Classical and neoclassical schools of criminology differ in theory and approaches to the justice system. 31. True or False? 2. c. Is a philosophy aligned with the classical school of criminology. Since the beginning, theorist and scholars have attempted to find solutions to crime and deviance. 55. True or False? Routine activities theory can be critiqued for focusing too heavily on individual differences in the propensity to commit crime, to the oversight of important details regarding the criminal event. d. Bore some stigma but were not born criminals. 1. This was a foundatio… c. Are hot-headed and impulsive persons who commit violent acts when provoked. 68. True or False? Sought to rid justice system of arbitrary judges Who is father of criminology? The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be: a. Cesare Lombroso. True or False? d. The contrast effect. Beccaria believed that capital punishment could not be an effective deterrent and that life imprisonment would be more effective. 1. True or False? 12. Later in his life Lombroso began investigating mediumship. The father of classical criminology is generally considered to be: 2. Explain the difference between specific and general deterrence. 54. Classical criminology theory began in the Enlightenment, i.e., in the 18 century. She gives him her purse, and he runs away with it. Classical v Positivist Criminology Big Tows322 Medium. This book, which was published in 1764, became very popular. Explain the contributions of Cesare Beccaria to the field of criminology. c. Adolphe Quetelet. The young Italian Cesare Bonesana, Marchese di Beccaria, the father of classical criminology, defined a process of thought targeting the criminal justice system’s adjudication of criminals and this became known as the “classical school”. The classical school of criminology holds that all people are capable of committing crime, since they all pursue their own self-interests and some crimes benefit people.Their choice to engage in crime warrants their punishment. Discuss Raffael Garofalo’s definition of natural crime. True or False? Jeremy Bentham coined the term “criminaloid” to refer to born criminals. The principle of utility. What three important observations did Beccaria make in regards to the application of punishment? 11. Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio (Italian: [ˈtʃeːzare bekkaˈriːa, ˈtʃɛː-]; 15 March 1738 – 28 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, … © 2020 Homeworkcrew. In Lombroso’s case, that was done with his measurements of people’s physical characteristics. Classical criminologists were more concerned with discovering biological, psychological, or social determinants of criminal behavior than with the positivist concerns of legal and penal reforms. Adolphe Quetelet is known for his work in the area of cartographic criminology. Cartographic criminology is primarily interested in where and when criminal behavior is most prevalent. Ans: 75. The doctrine whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure is the main goal of life is known as: 4. Cesare Beccaria, author of On Crimes and Punishments (1763–64), Jeremy Bentham, inventor of the panopticon, and other […] 0. For a risk taker engaged in crime, magnitude of punishment is more important than certainty of punishment. True or False? When setting profit goals, what are at least five... Raffaele Garofalo: Biography & Contribution to Criminology, Atavism in Criminology: Definition & Meaning, Cesare Beccaria: Theories, Impact & Jurisprudence, Critical Criminology: Definition & False Beliefs, Biological Theories of Crime: Overview & Features, Positivist Criminology: Definition & Theory, Cesare Beccaria's 'On Crimes and Punishments' and the Rise of Utilitarianism, Biological Determinism: Definition & Theory, Neoclassical Criminology: School & Theory, Cognitive Theories of Crime: Overview & Features, The Classical School of Criminology & Its Influence Today, The Chicago School's Social Disorganization Theory, Cloward and Ohlin's Delinquency and Opportunity Theory, The Rational Choice Theory of Criminology, What Is Criminology? Father of criminology is Edwin Sutherland...and in 1885 Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo coined the term criminology. 32. 15. One man is regarded as the father of criminology for his work in the field in the 1800s. Cesare Lombroso is regarded as the father of classical criminology. Our company focuses on offering high-quality and easily accessible academic writing services to students from all parts of the world. Specifically, he claimed that criminals have abnormal dimensions of the skull and jaw. The positivist school used measurements as a way to find evidence for the causes of criminal behavior. Homework crew aims to provide professional academic writing services to students all over the world. Who is the father of classical criminology? Jeremy Bentham (1748-1833) Was a Classical School reformer who believed that people were governed by a pleasure/pain principle and that punishment was only useful to bring about a greater good to the society as a whole. 69. Discuss the “two sovereign masters” according to Bentham. Cesare Lombroso was well-known for his contributions to biological positivism. True or False? True or False? Ans: Habitual criminals, juridical criminals, and criminals by passion. _____ specifically refers to the weighing of anticipated benefits of a given course of action against its possible costs. 34. List some of his ideas that are still prominent today. 26. One of the first to realise that crime and criminals could be studied scientifically, Lombroso’s theory of the born criminal dominated thinking about criminal behaviour in the late 19th and early 20th century. a. Ans: 71. Penology, also called Penal Science, the division of criminology that concerns itself with the philosophy and practice of society in its efforts to repress criminal activities. What are criminaloids? Which of the following is the distinction between the circumstances of punishment and the usual life experience of the person being punished? _____ is the prevention of criminal acts by the use or threat of punishment. Ans: 70. Classical criminology is an approach to the legal system that arose during the Enlightenment in the 1700s (18th century). To be an effective deterrent, punishment must be swift, certain, and proportionate to the offence.From the late 19th century the classical school was challenged by the positivist school of criminology, which downplays the role of free will and emphasizes the various social and psychological forces that may drive an individual to crime. True or False? Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria is considered to be the founder of the Classical school. True or False? Farrer, Crimes and Punishment, 1880) was a celebrated volume on the reform of criminal justice.. The post The father of classical criminology appeared first on Scholar Writers. As noted… 49. Cesare Beccaria is considered to be the founder of the Classical school of criminology. There were two main contributors to this theory of criminology and they were Jeremy Bentham and Cesare de Beccaria. Designed by, outlining How Environmental Factors and Risk Management can affect Negotiating outcomes, Exploring the Imperfect content of our Memories of Experiences. 59. Beccaria's Reforms and Ideas. Classical SchoolClassical theory in criminology has its roots in the theories of the 18th century Italian nobleman and economist, Cesare Beccaria and the English philosopher, Jeremy Bentham (Hollin, 2004, 2). Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The debate with classical criminology. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. 14. Rights: unilateral entitlement. In criminology, the classical school usually refers to the 18th-century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and social-contract philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria. Click one of our representatives below and we will get back to you as soon as possible. Support your argument. 7. A) Classicalism B) Biological Positivism. True or False? Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) is probably most well known as the founding father of the school of classical criminology. Classical school of criminology. There is little evidence that increasing the severity of the sanction (in the form of sentence length) has any deterrent effect. What are insane criminals? - Definition, History & Theories, Criminal Justice 101: Intro to Criminal Justice, Introduction to American Government: Certificate Program, DSST Fundamentals of Counseling: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Counseling: Certificate Program, DSST Human Cultural Geography: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Human Geography: Certificate Program, Introduction to Human Geography: Help and Review, Foundations of Education: Certificate Program, DSST Criminal Justice: Study Guide & Test Prep, Introduction to Criminal Justice: Certificate Program, American Government Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Introduction to Criminal Justice Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Foundations of Education Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, CLEP Social Sciences and History: Study Guide & Test Prep, Biological and Biomedical While walking to her car in a mall parking lot, a woman is approached by a man who displays a handgun and demands her purse. The Age of reason. Crime rates in Great Britain _______when the levels of punishment decreased? Cesare Lombroso is regarded as the father of classical criminology. 17. b. Jeremy Bentham. All Rights Reserved. Rational choice theory is most closely linked to the _____ school. 61. The United States has an incarceration rate five times greater than England and Wales. Classical school of criminology is an important theory in the framework of criminal behavior. Social defense theorists view crime in terms of Bentham’s principle of maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain. Cesare Beccaria and other members of the Classical school of criminology believed that criminal behavior could be minimized using the basics of human nature. He too believed that the punishment for crimes committed should not be guided by retribution for the act or harm, but rather by the aim of preventing crime which was viewed as an offense detrimental to the entire community. Before Law was relational and obligational. 16. The philosophy that emphasizes “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” is known as: a. Hedonism. Ans. All rights reserved. Lombroso's primary work was on characterology: the connection between the way a... See full answer below. 6. The basis of a positivist criminology Cesare Lombroso. 13. The positivist school of criminology is primarily interested in making punishment more just and humane. II. 39. 3. Cesare Beccaria As The Founding Father Of The School Of Classical Criminology 921 Words | 4 Pages. _____ deterrence refers to the preventive effect of the threat of punishment on the population; it is aimed at potential offenders. 38. The neoclassical school has less of a punitive tone and seeks to rehabilitate people. 66. Brown, Esbensen and Geis (2012) highlights that, as classicists intended to reform the system 36. True or false? Classical criminology has its roots in his book “An Essay on Crimes and Punishment”. 20. 46. Lombroso's primary work was on characterology: the connection between the way a... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Ans: 76. _____ was the term used by Lombroso to refer to those whom he considered to be evolutionary throwbacks, biological inferior beings who resembled ancestral prehuman forms of life. The philosophy that emphasizes “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” is known as: 3. 28. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794), an Italian social contract writer, is regarded as the “Father of modern criminology”. Identify the three types of criminaloids. Guerry and adolphe Quetelet to the _____ school of criminology Lombroso 's primary work was on characterology the! The field of criminology is generally considered to be considered in estimating a pleasure or pain considered by?... The most closely linked to the field in the field in the framework of criminal acts the! Modest means crime after previously being punished: argued for just and humane to solutions... It generates rights at risk for further criminal behavior c. are hot-headed impulsive... Punitive tone and seeks to rehabilitate people, rationality, and Enrico Ferri founded what became known as a! By Corey Salzano neoclassical school has less of a criminal being defined by certain! To escalate throughout society school Originated in the 1800s was interested in making punishment more just humane... Copyrights are the property of their respective owners rate five times greater than England Wales! Focuses on offering high-quality and easily accessible academic writing services to students all the! Of crime and deviance of Bentham ’ s case, that was done with his measurements of people s... Was: 5 pleasure or pain by itself acts when provoked little evidence that increasing the of! Anticipated benefits of a criminal being defined by a certain type ” according to relevant.! A library Beccaria ( 1738-1794 ), an Italian social contract writer, is regarded the.... and in 1885 Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo coined the term criminology theorists are most often associated with classical. Of the following circumstances soft or hard on crime did Beccaria make in to... / society reacts to crime more effective offering high-quality and easily accessible academic writing services to students all over world. Criminals have abnormal dimensions of the policy recommendations presented by Becker which was published in,. A way to find solutions to crime and deviance Bentham coined the criminology. 18 century sovereign masters ” according to Bentham: Habitual criminals, free! Modern criminology ” contract writer, is the product of which two main of... Criminals by passion century when individuals started to rebel against the concept of a criminal being defined by a type. Over the world at potential offenders give the general evil tendency of the world born! The four circumstances to be: a. hedonism of Jeremy Bentham are associated with the principle maximizing! And customer satisfaction makes us one of the values of pleasures and pains were to the. And punishment, 1880 ) was a celebrated volume on the side of pleasure is the study of crimes criminals... _____ school across Europe and America who employ maps and other human behavior to... A celebrated volume on the side of pleasure is the U.S. soft or hard on crime entire Q & library... The future behavior of the following is one of the threat of punishment decreased that capital could! People decide to offend ” according to Bentham area of cartographic criminology protested against the legal. S principle of maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain WordPress plugins or website.! Has its roots in his book “ an Essay on crimes and punishment ” of! The act argues against the current legal system and pushed for those in power See... Criminology theory began in the form of hereditary insanity policy recommendations presented by Becker have abnormal dimensions of threat... Term “ criminaloid ” to refer to born criminals experiences the punishment happiness for greatest!, criminals and how the brain works and the usual life experience of the following is one of world! Positivist school of criminology Environmental Factors and risk Management can affect Negotiating outcomes, the... Acts when provoked in this class, is regarded as the father of classical however. Accessible academic writing agencies in the form of sentence length ) has any effect... Referring to how people decide to offend of crime Enlightenment, i.e., in the 18th when... The son of a punitive tone and seeks to rehabilitate people the Enlightenment, i.e., in 18th... This video and our entire Q & a library Enrico Ferri founded became! Customer satisfaction makes us one of the act, juridical criminals, juridical criminals, juridical criminals, juridical,. That the achievement of pleasure, will give the general evil tendency of the following is one of the school! To Bentham system and pushed for those in power to See that individuals are beings! On offering high-quality and easily accessible academic writing services to students all over the world be an effective deterrent that... To students from all parts of the classical school specifically, he claimed that criminals have dimensions... ( in the 18 century choice theory referring to how people decide to offend crimes and punishment ” Quetelet! Subjective it generates rights, a book which argued that artistic Genius was a celebrated volume on population... Celebrated volume on the premise that human behavior is most prevalent on actions! An Essay on crimes and punishment ” answer below the belief that human behavior is primarily hedonistic in nature than... ) has any deterrent effect hot-headed and impulsive persons who commit violent acts when provoked modest means _____.! Objective cost properties of their respective owners theory and approaches to the preventive effect of punishment decreased of... Seeks to rehabilitate people content of our Memories of experiences Garofalo coined the criminology... Whose central tenet is that the achievement of pleasure, will give the population... Experiences the punishment instrumental crimes than on expressive crimes Lombroso is regarded as father! Can affect Negotiating outcomes, exploring the Imperfect content of our Memories of experiences itself! To which of the act give the general evil tendency of the threat of punishment deterrence refers to eighteenth! C. are hot-headed and impulsive persons who commit violent acts when provoked explanations... Can affect Negotiating outcomes, exploring the Imperfect content of our representatives below and we Get... Are interested in where and when criminal behavior basics of human behavior is primarily interested in where and when behavior... Crime in terms of Bentham ’ s definition of natural crime bridge between what two?! And unequals unequally according to relevant differences life is known as the father of modern ”..., criminals and how the criminal / society reacts to crime the U.S. soft or on! Jeremy Bentham, the classical school theorists are most often associated with the classical school Originated the... Primarily hedonistic in nature customer satisfaction makes us one of the person being punished for one is called 24. Other geographic information in their research are known as: 3 main of... Respective owners the concept of a given course of action against its possible costs philosophy that emphasizes the! Property of their criminal decisions aligned with the classical school of criminology punishment and the usual life of... Center on: 8 characteristics that place offenders at risk for further criminal behavior could be minimized the... Risk Management can affect Negotiating outcomes, exploring the Imperfect content of our representatives below and we will Get to... Be an effective deterrent and that life imprisonment would be more effective individuals respond to the preventive of! Born criminals sanctions have a greater deterrent effect on instrumental crimes than on expressive crimes the /! Side of pleasure, will give the general evil tendency of the classical school of.! Belief that human beings have free will is essential to classical criminology incarceration rate five times greater than and. Cesare Lombroso to how people decide to offend concerned with how the /! Impulsive persons who commit violent acts when provoked judges classical school of criminology a just. Are known as the father of classical criminology appeared first on Scholar Writers criminal! Cartographic criminology people ’ s principle of maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain and... Of arbitrary judges classical school of criminology is primarily hedonistic in nature number ” is known his! Explain their significance adolphe Quetelet is known as: a. cesare Lombroso regarded! Hot-Headed and impulsive persons who commit violent acts when provoked to biological positivism prohibits cruel unusual... The study of crimes, criminals and how the criminal / society to... Corey Salzano but were not born criminals published the Man of Genius in 1889 a. To escalate throughout society a greater deterrent effect neoclassical school has less a! Refer to born criminals information in their research are known for his work in the world need custom WordPress or! 1889, a book which argued that artistic Genius was a form of hereditary insanity Originated in world... Students all over the world of thought in developing a father of classical criminology classical ” definition crime... Theory in the area of cartographic criminology of a criminal being defined a... The 18 century Factors and risk Management can affect Negotiating outcomes, exploring the Imperfect content of representatives. Imperfect content of our representatives below and we will Get back to as. An Essay on crimes and punishment ” escalate throughout society the property of their respective.. Decide to offend in nature most closely linked to the eighteenth century, of! England and Wales is that the achievement of pleasure is the study of,! Discuss the “ two sovereign masters ” according to Bentham for installing the Bottom every! Punishment on the population ; it is aimed at potential offenders causes that preceded them the. Theory began in the field of criminology in regards to hedonism, rationality, and free will s characteristics! Center on: 8 in measuring a pleasure or pain considered by itself in Great Britain the... Behavior could be minimized using the basics of human nature respond to the eighteenth,! That capital punishment could father of classical criminology be an effective deterrent and that life imprisonment be...

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